Due to its central location, Okinawa was influenced by various cultures with a long history of trade and cultural exchange, including Japan, China, and Southeast Asia, that greatly influenced the development of martial arts on Okinawa.
In 1429, the three kingdoms on Okinawa unified to form the Kingdom of Ryūkyū. When King Shō Shin came into power in 1477, he banned the practice of martial arts. Tō-te and Ryukyu kobudō (weaponry) continued to be taught in secret. The ban was continued in 1609 after Okinawa was invaded by the Satsuma Domain of Japan. The bans contributed to the development of kobudō which uses common household and farming implements as weaponry. The Okinawans combined Chinese martial arts with the existing local variants to form Tōde (唐手 Tuudii, Tang hand, China hand), sometimes called Okinawa-te (沖縄手).
By the 18th century, different types of Te had developed in three different villages – Naha, Shuri, and Tomari. The styles were named Naha-te, Shuri-te and Tomari-te, respectively.
Well into the 20th century, the martial arts of Okinawa were generally referred to as te 手, which is Japanese for "hand". Te often varied from one town to another, so to distinguish among the various types of te, the word was often prefaced with its area of origin; for example, Naha-te, Shuri-te, or Tomari-te.
Naha-te, Shuri-te and Tomari-te belong to a family of martial arts that were collectively defined as Tode-jutsu or To-de. Karate (Okinawa-te or Karate-jutsu) was systematically taught in Japan after the Taisho era (after 1926).
Shuri-te (首里手, Okinawan: Suidii) is a pre-World War II term for a type of indigenous martial art to the area around Shuri, the old capital city of the Ryūkyū Kingdom.
Important Okinawan masters of Shuri-te:
- Sakukawa Kanga
- Matsumura Sōkon
- Itosu Ankō
- Asato Ankō
- Chōyū Motobu
- Motobu Chōki
- Yabu Kentsū
- Chōmo Hanashiro
- Funakoshi Gichin
- Kyan Chōtoku
- Chibana Chōshin
- Mabuni Kenwa
- Tōyama Kanken
- Tatsuo Shimabuku
Tomari-te (泊手, Okinawan: Tumai-dii) refers to a tradition of martial arts originating from the village of Tomari, Okinawa.
Important Okinawan masters of Tomari-te:
- Naihanchi (Koshiki)
- Passai (Tomari)
The successor styles to Tomari-te include Motobu-ryū, Matsubayashi-ryu and Shōrinji-ryū.
Naha-te (那覇手, Okinawan: Naafa-dii) is a pre-World War II term for a type of martial art indigenous to the area around Naha, the old commercial city of the Ryūkyū Kingdom and now the capital city of Okinawa Prefecture.
Important Okinawan masters of Naha-te:
Ganbaru (頑張る lit., stand firm), also romanized as gambaru, is a ubiquitous Japanese word which roughly means to slog on tenaciously through tough times. The word Ganbaru is often translated to mean "doing one’s best", but in practice, it means doing more than one's best. The word emphasizes "working with perseverance" or "toughing it out." Ganbaru means "to commit oneself fully to a task and to bring that task to an end." It can be translated to mean persistence, tenacity, doggedness and hard work. The term has a unique importance in Japanese culture.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ganbaru", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Okinawan Martial Arts", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.